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ProVen Glossary

Have you come across a term or phrase that you don’t understand? Welcome to our Probiotics Glossary – designed to help explain the long list of jargon associated with the gut in general and probiotics in particular.
E. coli

The full name of this bacteria is Escherichia coli. It forms part of the normal bacteria of the lower intestines in many humans and is generally harmless. An overgrowth of some strains of E. coli bacteria can cause problems, such as urinary tract infections, food poisoning, diarrhoea and respiratory illness (including pneumonia).


Eczema is a type of dermatitis, which causes patches of skin to become itchy, red, dry and cracked. It is a long-term (chronic) condition in most people, although it can improve over time, especially in children. Eczema can affect any part of the body, but the most common areas to be affected are the backs or fronts of knees, outside or inside elbows, neck, hands, cheeks and scalp. Atopic eczema often runs in families and is linked to allergies. Gut dysbiosis has also been linked to eczema symptoms.


Endogenous means to originate or develop internally within an organism, tissue or cell. Endogenous bacteria are those which reside within a closed system such as bacterial gut flora which lives in the gastrointestinal tract – they are a natural part of the organism or microbiome.

Enteric nervous system

The enteric nervous system is a part of the autonomic nervous system that is responsible for innervating and controlling the gastrointestinal tract and digestive processes. Also known as the intrinsic nervous system, it has been described as the ‘second brain’ and can function autonomously, although it requires communication with the central nervous system to function effectively.


The epithelium is the lining on most internal and external surfaces of the human body. This type of tissue consists of one or more layers of tightly-packed cells, and lines the gastrointestinal tract as well as other parts of the body including the organs. It acts as a protective layer to help prevent toxins and pathogens from entering the body.


Exogenous means to originate or develop externally – from outside an organism, tissue or cell. Exogenous bacteria are those which come from the environment and are often pathogenic or alien to the system. As a result, they may induce an immune response or inflammation.

Additions to our Probiotics Glossary

If you come across a term you feel should be within our Probiotics Glossary, please do not hesitate to reach out to us and we will endeavour to research and add them. Email us at: [email protected]

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